Mushi Production was an animation studio founded by Osamu Tezuka.


Initially, Mushi paid salaries three times as much that of Toei, causing some animators to move over to Mushi.

Mushi animated Tetuwan Atom, the second ever anime television series and the first anime to be brought over to the west where it was dubbed under then name Astro Boy. Mushi animated Jungle Emperor Leo (Kimba the White Lion), the first anime television series to be shown in color and adapted many others of Tezuka's manga into anime.

The business model of being director-centric was not feasible so they even resorted to what were essentially the first Hentai anime, the infamous Animerama series of movies. Mushi Production went bankrupt and many of its staff founded famous studios including Sunrise and Madhouse whereas its founder founded Tezuka Productions.[1]


  1. Documentary: History of Anime Part 2 of 4

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